What is Relative?(july 2019 ) : Defination ,example and Important Exercise .

RELATIVE

Relative Pronoun means the word which is stand in the place of noun and also two sentences or clauses. They have the same form for singular and plural. Relatives Pronouns are – who, whom, whose, which, that, what, as and but.

Ex.

  1. The boy who stood first is my friend.
  2. The man whom you saw yesterday is my uncle.
  3. The girl whose name is Reba is my sister.
  4. I got the book which he had sent for me.
  5. This is the pen that I lost.
  6. Tell me what you want.
  7. This is same pencil as mine.
  8. There is no man but loves his country.

In the above sentences italics with who, whom, whose, which,that ,what, as but in the above sentences. These words are called Relative Pronouns. Each of them has been used in place of a Noun.

KINDS OF RELATIVE

a. Defining Relative clause :

I know the boy who came here yesterday.

If we detach the clause ‘ who came here yesterday ‘ form the sentence, it will be difficult to understood which boy is spoken of here. Because, it relates to its Antecedent ‘ Boy ‘ . It defines or restricts the Antecedent ‘ Boy ‘ . Such a clause is called a defining clause.

The defining relative clause does the function of an adjective I. E it qualifies a Noun or Pronoun. It defines or restricts the application of the antecedent. Note that a defining relative clause is not marked off by a comma.

b. Non – Defining Relative Clause :

I met your mother, who tell me of your illness.

The king slew all the prisoners, which was a barbaric act.

In the above sentences the sentence ‘ who told ‘ me of your illness , is the relative clause and ‘ who ‘ is the relative Pronoun. But this relative clause has not defined or restricted it Antecedent ‘ mother ‘ . So it is not difficult to understand the meaning of the sentence even in the absence of the relative clause. In this case, the meaning of the sentence is ” I met your mother and she told me of your illness “.

In the second sentence too, the Relative clause ‘ which was a barbaric act ‘ is not defining is antecedent ‘prisoners ‘ . It is not difficult to understand the meaning of the sentence even in the absence of a relative clause. Its meaning is ‘ The king slew all the prisoners and it was a barbaric act.

Note that a Non – defining Relative clause is marked off a comma. The non defining relative clause doesn’t restricts the meaning of the Antecedent and the relative pronoun may be replaced by ‘ and he ‘ or ‘ and it ‘, and similar other expression.

Forms Of Relative Pronoun

For persons :-

Nominative : Who ,that

Accusative : whom, who, that

Genitive : Whose

Use Of the Relatives :

a) Who, whom and whose are used for persons :-

I know the boy who won the prize.

The gentleman whom you met is my teacher.

This is the girl whose pen is lost.

b) Which is used for animals, things and children :

This is the cow which we bought yesterday.

He gave the book which I needed.

The mother took the child which was crying.

c) ‘ THAT ‘ is used for persons, animals and things.

I welcomed the gentleman that came to our office.

This is the dog that we lost.

All that glitters is not gold.

d) ‘ What ‘ is used for things only. It is used where the antecedent is not expressed :-

Tell me what you want to know.

I mean what you say.

He took away what he wanted.

e) ‘ As ‘ is used as a Relative pronoun after same and such :

This is the same book as I wanted.

Such boys as are diligent will shine in life.

He is such a man as I honour.

f) ‘But ‘ is used as a Relative Pronoun bearing a negative since. It is called ” the negative Relative ” . It means ‘ Who not / that not ‘ :-

There is no mother but loves her child.

There is no rose but has thorns.

There is none here but wishes you well.

Omission of the Relative Pronoun

The relative pronoun is omitted when it is the object of a verb or a preposition :

The man whom you met is an engineer.

I am the monarch of all which I survey.

This is the book that I lost.

Agreement of the Relative Pronoun

The Relative Pronoun agrees in number and person with its antecedent.

It is I who am to blame.

It is you who are to blame.

It is he who is to blame.

Difference between the uses of that &which

a) ‘ Which ‘ is used for a Non defining clauses while ‘ that ‘ is used for defining clauses .

The king killed all the prisoners which was a barbarous act.

The president called for a doctor came at once.

b) ‘ That ‘ is used after a superlative degree :

This is the oldest house that we have in the locality.

c) ‘ That ‘ cannot be used in the possessive case but ‘ which ‘ can be used so :

I have a knife with which I cut vegetables.

d) ‘ That ‘ is used after indefinite pronouns, ‘ only ‘ and ‘ any ‘ :-

Nothing that he does is done well.

He will go anytime that suits you.

e) After the interrogative ‘ who ‘ and ‘ what ‘ :

Who is the man that did it?

What is it that she wants?

f) After two antecedent, one requiring ‘ who ‘ and other requiring which :

The learned professor spoke on the men and countries that he saw.

Many are the politicians and political parties that he was worked with.

g) ‘ That ‘ is used after the expression ‘ It is……

It is a poor heart that never rejoices.

Important Exercise

  1. The boy who stand first is my friend.
  2. The man whom you saw yesterday is my uncle.
  3. This is the pen that I lost.
  4. There is no man but loves his country.
  5. Tell us what you want.
  6. I know the boy who won the prize.
  7. The gentleman whom you met is my teacher.
  8. All the glitters is not gold.
  9. I am the monarch of all which I survey.
  10. He is the best athlete that our college has ever had.
  11. Nothing that he does is done well.
  12. All that I want is this.
  13. What is it that she wants?
  14. Who is the man that did it?
  15. He is the only boy that could answer my question

Also Read reading-comprehensuon

pronoun-5-essential-steps-of-pronoun

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